Written in , this is actually Stein's autobiography, written from the perspective of her partner Toklas. This work, despite its homosexual subject matter, brought Stein worldwide fame and recognition. Published in , the biography reconstructs the life and death of British comic playwright Joe Orton , who was widely considered a successor to Oscar Wilde and Noel Coward. Orton was murdered by his homosexual lover at the age of thirty-four. Credited with introducing modern experimental techniques to the French novel, Gide is highly esteemed for the. His work is recognized for its diversity in both form and content, yet critics have also noted that his characters consistently reflect his own moral and philosophical conflicts.
For this reason, commentators on Gide's works often attach as much significance to biographical detail as they do to artistic method. One of Gide's primary artistic and philosophical concerns was authenticity. However, Gide's critics are quick to point out that although he used forms conducive to autobiographical honesty, such as first person novels, journals, and personal essays, Gide did not reveal himself completely in his works.
Critics today are divided in their assessment of Gide's novels. While some perceive them as dated and of only minor interest to contemporary readers, others maintain that the perfection of Gide's style and the sincerity with which he set out to expose social, religious, artistic, and sexual hypocrisy guarantee the novels a permanent place in twentieth-century literature. There is wider consensus among critics about the value of Gide's voluminous Journals , though. Gale Research, Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich. A Bruccoli Clark Layman Book. Detroit: Gale, Catharine Savage Brosman, Tulane University.
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Driskill, Richard T. Lawrence and Andre Gide. New York : Peter Lang, Fryer, Jonathan. New York : St. Martin's Press, Online ed. Lucey, Andre. Gide's Bent: Sexuality, Politics, Writing. New York: Oxford University Press, Department of Romance Languages.
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Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. He sought to uncover the authentic self beneath its contradictory masks. His fragile health and nervous temperament affected his education, which oscillated between formal schooling and a combination of travel and private tutoring. At 15 he vowed a lifelong spiritual love to his cousin, Madeleine Rondeaux.
It did not succeed, however, in winning over the reluctant Madeleine, as Gide had intended. In Gide set out for Africa with his friend Paul Laurens in the hope of harmonizing imperious sensual desires and inherited puritanical inhibitions. At Susa he had his first homosexual experience. There Gide fell ill with tuberculosis and was forced to return to France, where he was shocked to find the symbolist salons unchanged. Wilde obliged Gide to acknowledge his pederasty, to which he now passionately acquiesced.
This was indeed a pivotal year for Gide for it also brought the death of his mother and his marriage to Madeleine, who continued to symbolize for him the pull of virtue, restraint, and spirituality against his cult of freedom and physical pleasure. Gide's life was a constant effort to strike a balance between these opposite imperatives. Gide articulated his doctrine of freedom in in Les Nourritures terrestres Fruits of the Earth , a lyrical work advocating liberation through sensuous hedonism. L'Immoraliste , a novel transposing many autobiographical elements, dramatizes the dangers of Michel's selfish quest for freedom and pleasure at the ultimate cost of death to his pious wife, Marceline.
In this, perhaps Gide's greatest novel, as in various other works, the portrait of the virtuous, devoted heroine was inspired by Madeleine. The final pages of her diary suggest the futility of her self-denials in the face of solitude without God.
Tunis, André Gide
This was Gide's first success. After publishing in another highly polished though less autobiographical work, Isabelle, Gide was ready to challenge the principle of order in art. This he accomplished in Les Caves du Vatican ; The Vatican Swindle , a humorous satire on bourgeois complacency, be it orthodox or anticlerical, and on relativism and chance.
The work defies conventional psychology's insistence on motivated acts. Instead Gide carries to the extreme the idea of freedom, for the hero, Lafcadio, murders a total stranger by pushing him out of a moving train. Thus Gide evolved the notion of the "gratuitous act," an expression of absolute freedom, unpremeditated, seemingly unmotivated. In La Symphonie pastorale , a pastor's free interpretation of Christ's words to legitimize his love for the heroine is pitted against his son's orthodox adherence to the restrictions of St. The latter crisis was also caused by the beginning of Gide's love affair with Elisabeth van Rysselberghe, who later became the mother of his only child, Catherine.
Gide risked his reputation by publishing Corydon , an apology of homosexuality, and Si le grain ne meurt … ; If It Die … , his well-known autobiography which treats the years , the period of his homosexual liberation. Gide's Les Faux-monnayeurs The Counterfeiters appeared in It is the fruit of a year meditation on a twofold esthetic freedom: freedom from subjective, autobiographical fiction and freedom from the limitations of the traditional novel. In order to convey a true impression of life, chaotic, elusive, perceived subjectively and individually, Gide devised a technique of disorder.
Les Faux-monnayeursis a landmark in the general revolt against realism, defying the reader's conventional expectations and forcing him to reflect on the technical problems which face the modern novelist. Also in appeared Dostoevsky, a collection of lectures and articles on the Russian novelist, whom Gide greatly admired and helped bring to the attention of the French public. He was deeply distressed by the colonial exploitation of the natives that he witnessed there.
Upon his return he published accounts of his trip and issued a call for action. This experience undoubtedly facilitated his conversion to communism in the s. Disillusioned by a visit to the U. Gide had long since ceased to feel at ease with intellectual conformity.
In he had insisted in the play Oedipe on the individual's obligation to draw his own ethical conclusions Oedipus rather than follow the path of blind discipleship Eteocles and Polynices. In Les Nouvelles nourritures Later Fruits of the Earth had reiterated the ideal of liberation, now tempered by consideration of others, a sense of social duty, and self-discipline. During the German Occupation, Gide was forced to flee to Tunisia. The optimistic mood betrays the author's serene confidence in the path he had chosen.
The following year Gide was awarded an honorary degree from Oxford and the Nobel Prize for literature.
André Gide - Hotel Michelangelo Carrara
Probably the most important publication of Gide's later years was his Journal, , released in , one year after the death of his wife. Considered by some his best work, the Journal is the moving self-portrait of a man whose mind mirrored the crisis of the modern intellectual. It also contains precious information on his curious platonic marriage to Madeleine, who quietly endured her husband's homosexual adventures by taking refuge in a world of piety and domesticity. Her mute suffering was a great source of guilt and pain to Gide, who loved her deeply.
Et nunc manet in te, published posthumously in , is Gide's testimony to that love and a frank account of their unspoken tragedy. Gide died in Paris on Feb. The best general studies in English of Gide's works are Albert J. Tolton, C. He established a reputation as an unconventional novelist with The Immoralist , tr. In this and other major novels, including Strait Is the Gate , tr. He was controversial for his frank defense of homosexuality and for his espousal of Communism and his subsequent disavowal of it after a visit to the Soviet Union.
His voluminous writings, which include plays, stories, and essays, show great diversity of subjects and literary techniques. His use of myth to embody his thought is evident in such early satirical tales as Prometheus Misbound , tr.
His Travels in the Congo , tr. In he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. See his autobiography, If It Die tr. O'Brien 4 vol.
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O'Brien , J. Hytier tr. Rossi , G. Painter rev. Mann In addition, it subsidizes the publication of previously unpublished documents texts, letters, etc. The Foundation serves the public interest and seeks no financial gain. All donations are welcome and will be acknowledged. In addition to using the editing, the Foundation wishes to promote musical creation by the support of composers who wish to register their works with a view Gide. The Foundation has supported the work of composer Pierre Thilloy at the time of its creation entitled "Amen", commissioned by Catherine Gide Foundation for the th anniversary of the founding of the French Nouvelle Revue.
The score of this opus is available for download. Those interested should contact the Foundation: - A detailed CV, - Excerpts from past work, - A presentation of their project, - A detail of its potential value public - A budget.