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Sick A Memoir. The Impatient Dr. A Planet of Viruses. WPV remains endemic in only 2 countries, limiting the risk of importation to the U.

Poliovirus Type 1 Antibody (HYB )

Monitoring seroprevalence is an important component of understanding risks for polio in the U. Continued high vaccine coverage remains paramount in the near future while the world completes the global elimination of polio. Progress toward polio eradication — Pakistan, January September Progress toward polio eradication — Afghanistan, January August Progress toward polio eradication — Nigeria, January July Interim CDC guidance for polio vaccination for travel to and from countries affected by wild poliovirus.

Introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine and switch from trivalent to bivalent oral poliovirus vaccine — Worldwide, — Poliomyelitis prevention in the United States. RR-5 :1— Seroprevalence of antibody agasinst poliovirus in inner-city preschool children. Population immunity to polioviruses among preschool children from four urban underserved low income communities, United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Center for Health Statistics.

Vital Health Stat 2 Standardized methods for detection of poliovirus antibodies. Methods Mol Biol. Karber G. Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie ; Fine PE. Herd immunity: history, theory, practice. Epidemiol Rev. Download references. All authors contributed to the design, interpretation of data, and writing of the manuscript.

WW and SO were responsible for laboratory evaluation, analysis, and interpretation of the data. AC performed data analysis and interpretation of the data and GW was the lead for the conception and execution of the study. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the CDC.

Correspondence to Aaron T. Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Wallace 1 , Aaron T. In a polio free country like Malaysia, ES is very valuable to determine whether the virus is still circulating in a community that appears healthy. Malaysia has been free of indigenous and imported WPV circulation since and respectively and attained polio free status together with other countries in the Western Pacific Region in Nevertheless the risk of importation of WPV from endemic countries such as Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria is a real threat to Malaysia as it has migrants and visitors from those countries.

This virus could survive in sewage treatment plants and in the environment for several months [7 ] and this will give us indicators for successful of polio eradication programme.

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Certain areas in the state of Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Negri Sembilan and Sabah were identified for ES based on the poor achievement in AFP surveillance indicator and have a risk of WPV importation as these areas also had high mobility of foreign workers and migrants. Sampling technique and schedule The grab method protocol introduced by WHO was used for sampling purposes [17].

Briefly, 1 liter of flowing sewage water was collected at peak morning flow am once a month at three 3 selected plants.

These plants had high population coverage including the residents of migrants and foreigners. Processing sample and isolation of poliovirus Processing samples and laboratory testing were done following [17] protocols. It was done separately from the work space for AFP cases to avoid any cross contamination. Briefly, about half ml of the collected raw sewage specimens were aliquoted 50ml each into 5 centrifuged tubes and centrifuged for 10 minutes at g.

The pH of supernatants were adjusted to 7. Later The entire lower layer and the interphase were collected slowly into a sterile tubes, then mixed with the pellet that already harvested previously. Extraction with chloroform was done following the WHO protocol for extraction of stool samples [18]. Finally, ul of extracted samples were inoculated into 3 flasks 25 cm 2 flask of each L20B and RD-A cells. Any Sabin-like discordants were further characterized by sequencing of the full VP1 gene.

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All sites had population more than , with foreigners and migrants from endemic countries. In , due to logistic problems, the ES was only commenced in February with 3 new plants in the state of Selangor. There were nucleotides changes but the changes were not significant to conclude as Non-Sabin-like viruses NSL.

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Others PVs isolated were also confirmed as Sabin-Like. The ES continued in with the 2 plants in Selangor with poliovirus isolated in the previous year. A new plant in Mantin Negeri Sembilan was included in the survey. The ES was stopped for a while in and resumed in mid with Likas in Sabah was choosen as a new location.

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Sequencing data showed that the strain was similar to WPV from India. AFP is required to be notified administratively. Case definition used is any child under 15 years olds presented with AFP cases for whatever causes except injuries must be fully investigated with 2 stool specimens collected at least hours apart but within 14 days of onset of paralysis. Together with clinical cases surveillance, ES was introduced in in order to expand the polio surveillance system.